How Does Ketamine Work? How Does Ketamine Prevent Deaths of Despair? Serotonin 1B Receptors and Ketamine | Northern Virginia Ketamine Infusion Center

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How Does Ketamine Work? How Does Ketamine Prevent Deaths of Despair? 

There are numerous pathways through which ketamine appears to work to resolve depression. Ketamine demonstrates efficacy the rapid relief of suicidalityPTSDBipolar depression, and pain. Glutamate is the neurotransmitter that appears to be a primary molecule involved in learning and is an excitatory neurotransmitter in the cerebrum. Disorders in glutamate result in depression and mood disorders. A recent study demonstrated the importance of Serotonin 1B receptors in depression and how ketamine improves that. 

A randomized placebo-controlled PET study of ketamine´s effect on serotonin1B receptor binding in patients with SSRI-resistant depression 

Low Serotonin 1B receptors have been found in limbic areas of the brain in major depression disorder (MDD). Ketamine upregulates AMPA receptor activity and results in increased 5-HT1B receptor binding in the ventral striatum (involved in depression). 

In the study, PET scans were used to image serotonin receptor binding after ketamine infusions in 30 patients. Low levels of serotonin correlate with severe depression. During the study, a certain portion of the patients underwent ketamine infusions twice a week for two weeks, and 70% of those patients had improvement in their depression scores. Based in the PET scans, ketamine reduces the output of serotonin and increased dopamine (the reward molecule). Ketamine increased the number of Serotonin 1B receptors and the higher number of Serotonin 1B receptors correlates with less depression. 

Key points: 

Subanesthetic dosing of ketamine has been effective in the rapid reduction of depression over hours as opposed to weeks with traditional treatments: 

Antidepressant effects of ketamine in depressed patients 

Glutamate is the key neurotransmitter involved in mood disorders based on recent theories: 

The role of glutamate in mood disorders: results from the ketamine in major depression study and the presumed cellular mechanism underlying its antidepressant effects 

The NMDA receptor (N-methyl-D-aspartate ) antagonism by ketamine plays a key role in the effectiveness of ketamine’s antidepressant effect: 

 
The acute effects of NMDA antagonism: from the rodent to the human brain 

Ketamine interacts with several receptors in the brain and impacts neurotransmitters through affinity for opioid, muscarinic, nicotinic, and serotonin (5-HT)2 receptors: 

 
Classics in Chemical Neuroscience: Ketamine 

Ketamine, much like other antidepressants, seems to increase serotonin in areas of the brain such as the prefrontal cortex and depletion of serotonin results in decreased antidepressant effects with ketamine: 

Role of Serotonin and Noradrenaline in the Rapid Antidepressant Action of Ketamine 

In the positron emission tomography (PET) studies of in vivo 5-HT1B receptor binding in MDD, low binding in the hippocampus and in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been reported both in patients with recurrent MDD: 

Low serotonin1B receptor binding potential in the anterior cingulate cortex in drug-free patients with recurrent major depressive disorder 

PTSD also presents with reduced serotonin 1B receptors as well: 

The Effect of Early Trauma Exposure on Serotonin Type 1B Receptor Expression Revealed by Reduced Selective Radioligand Binding 

In patients with a family history of depression, it is noted that 5-HT1B receptor binding was low in the ventral striatum (VST) and ventral pallidum: 

Reduced ventral striatal/ventral pallidal serotonin1B receptor binding potential in major depressive disorder 

The VST is a key structure in the reward system, implicated in anhedonia – the presence of no mood that can accompany MDD and 5-HT1B receptor binding is high in the VST: 

Circuit-based frameworks of depressive behaviors: The role of reward circuitry and beyond 

Per this studyketamine increased 5-HT1B receptor binding in regions with reported low 5-HT1B receptor levels, such as the hippocampus, ACC (Anterior Cingulate Cortex), and VST and this resulted in diminished depression. 

What does this mean for you? 

The bottom line is that ketamine still improved depression in 70% of treatment failures through still-debated mechanisms. The improvement of the Serotonin 1B receptor is just another piece of the puzzle.  

NOVA Health Recovery is a Ketamine Treatment Center in Fairfax, Virginia (Northern Virginia Ketamine) that specializes in the treatment of depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, OCD, and chronic pain such as CRPS, cluster headaches, and fibromyalgia using Ketamine therapies, both infusion and home-based ketamine nasal spray and oral tablets. We also offer addiction treatment services with Suboxone, Vivitrol, and Sublocade therapies for opiate addiction as well as alcohol treatment regimens. Contact us at 703-844-0184 or at this link: NOVA Health Recovery Ketamine Infusion Center Near me Ketamine Infusion 

Ketamine Provider | Ketamine near me | Psychedelic assisted therapy | Mushrooms | Ketamine assisted psychotherapy | Ketamine psychedelic therapy | KAP | K hole | New depression Treatments | Areas we serve: 

Maryland (MD): 

Bethesda 20814 – Bethesda 20816 – Bethesda 20817 – Chevy Chase 20815 – Colesville 20904 – Cabin John 20815 – Glen Echo 20812 – Gaithersburg 20855 – Gaithersburg 20877- Gaithersburg 20878 – Gaithersburg 20879 – Garrett Park 20896 – Kensington 20895 – Montgomery Village 20886 – Olney 20830 – Olney 20832 – Potomac 20854 – Potomac 20859 – Rockville 20850 – Rockville 20852 – Rockville 20853 – Silver Spring 20903 – Silver Spring 20905 – Silver Spring 20906 – Silver Spring 20910 – Takoma Park 20912 – Wheaton 20902 

Washington DC: 

Crestwood 20011- North Capitol Hill 20002 – Cathedral Heights 20016 – American University Park 20016 – Columbia Heights 20010 – Mount Pleasant 20010 – Downtown 20036 – Dupont Circle 20009 – Logan Circle 20005- Adams Morgan 20009 – Chevy Chase 20015 – Georgetown 20007 – Cleveland Park 20008 – Foggy Bottom 20037 – Rock Creek Park – Woodley Park 20008 – Tenleytown 20016 

Northern Virginia: 

McLean 22101- McLean 22102 – McLean 22106 – Great Falls 22066 – Arlington 22201 – Arlington 22202 – Arlington 22203 – Arlington 22205 – Falls Church 22041 – Vienna 22181 – Alexandria 22314 – 22308 -22306 -22305 -22304  Fairfax – 20191 – Reston – 22009 – Springfield – 22152  22015  Lorton 22199 

Fairfax, Va 

2303 –  22307 – 22306 – 22309 – 22308 22311 – 22310 – 22312 

22315 -22003 – 20120 – 22015 – 22027 20121 – 22031 –  20124 

22030 – 22033 – 22032 – 22035 – 22039 22041 – 22043 

22042 – 22046 – 22044 – 22060 – 22066 20151 – 22079 – 20153 – 22101 

22102 – 20171 – 20170 – 22124 – 22151 22150 – 22153 

22152 – 20191 – 20190 – 22181- 20192 22180 – 20194 –  22182 

Woodbridge – 22191 – 22192 -22193 -22194 – 22195  

Springfield – 22150 – 22151 -22152-22153-22154-22155 -22156 – 22157 -22158 -22159 -22160 – 22161  

Front Royal 22630 

Warren County 22610 22630 22642 22649 

Fredericksburg Va 22401 22402 – 22403 – 22404 -22405 -22406 -22407 -22408 – 22412  

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20105 Aldie Loudoun County 20106 Amissville Culpeper County 20107 Arcola Loudoun County 

20108 Manassas Manassas City 20109 Sudley Springs Prince William County 

20109 Manassas Prince William County 20110 Manassas Manassas City 

20111 Manassas Prince William County 20111 Manassas Park Prince William County 

20112 Manassas Prince William County 20113 Manassas Park Manassas Park City 

20115 Marshall Fauquier County 20116 Marshall Fauquier County 

20117 Middleburg Loudoun County 20118 Middleburg Loudoun County 

20119 Catlett Fauquier County – 20120 Sully Station Fairfax County 

20120 Centreville Fairfax County – 20121 Centreville Fairfax County 

20122 Centreville Fairfax County – 20124 Clifton Fairfax County 

20128 Orlean Fauquier County -20129 Paeonian Springs Loudoun County 

20130 Paris Clarke County 

20131 Philomont Loudoun County 20132 Purcellville Loudoun County 

20134 Hillsboro Loudoun County 20134 Purcellville Loudoun County 

20135 Bluemont Clarke County 20136 Bristow Prince William County 

20137 Broad Run Fauquier County 20138 Calverton Fauquier County 

20139 Casanova Fauquier County 20140 Rectortown Fauquier County 

20141 Round Hill Loudoun County 20142 Round Hill Loudoun County 

20143 Catharpin Prince William County 

20144 Delaplane Fauquier County20146 Ashburn Loudoun County 

20147 Ashburn Loudoun County 20148 Brambleton Loudoun County 

20148 Ashburn Loudoun County 20151 Chantilly Fairfax County 

20151 Fairfax Fairfax County 20152 South Riding Loudoun County 

20152 Chantilly Loudoun County 20152 Fairfax Loudoun County 

20153 Chantilly Fairfax County 20153 Fairfax Fairfax County 

20155 Gainesville Prince William County 20156 Gainesville Prince William County 

20158 Hamilton Loudoun County 20159 Hamilton Loudoun County 

20160 Lincoln Loudoun County 20160 Purcellville Loudoun County 

20163 Sterling Loudoun County 20164 Sterling Loudoun County 

20165 Potomac Falls Loudoun County 20165 Sterling Loudoun County 

20166 Dulles Loudoun County 20166 Sterling Loudoun County 

20167 Sterling Loudoun County 20168 Haymarket Prince William County 

20169 Haymarket Prince William County 20170 Herndon Fairfax County 

20171 Oak Hill Fairfax County 20171 Herndon Fairfax County 

20172 Herndon Fairfax County 20175 Leesburg Loudoun County 

20176 Lansdowne Loudoun County 20176 Leesburg Loudoun County 

20177 Leesburg Loudoun County 20178 Leesburg Loudoun County 

20180 Lovettsville Loudoun County 20181 Nokesville Prince William County 

20182 Nokesville Prince William County 20184 Upperville Fauquier County 

20185 Upperville Fauquier County 20186 Warrenton Fauquier County 

20187 New Baltimore Fauquier County 20187 Vint Hill Farms Fauquier County 20187 Warrenton Fauquier County 

20188 Vint Hill Farms Fauquier County 20188 Warrenton Fauquier County 

20190 Reston Fairfax County 20190 Herndon Fairfax County 

20191 Reston Fairfax County 20191 Herndon Fairfax County 

20194 Reston Fairfax County 20194 Herndon Fairfax County 

20195 Reston Fairfax County 20195 Herndon Fairfax County 

20197 Waterford Loudoun County 20198 The Plains Fauquier County 

Loudon County: 

Loudoun County, VA – Standard ZIP Codes 

20105 | 20117 | 20120 | 20129 | 20130 | 20132 | 20135 | 20141 | 20147 | 20148 | 20152 | 20158 | 20164 | 20165 | 20166 | 20175 | 20176 | 20180 | 20184 | 20189 | 20197 | 22066 

Ashburn, VA – Standard ZIP Codes 
20147 20148 
Leesburg, VA – Standard ZIP Codes 
20175 20176 
Sterling, VA – Standard ZIP Codes 
20164 20165 20166 

Waterford, VA 20197 

Dulles, VA – Standard ZIP Codes 
20166 20189 
Purcellville, VA – Standard ZIP Codes 
20132 
Chantilly, VA – Standard ZIP Codes 
20151 20152 

Mcclean, Va Zip codes: 220432204622066,221012210222207 

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